Royal College of Ophthalmologists’ National Ophthalmology Database study of cataract surgery: report 6. The impact of EyeSi virtual reality training on complications rates of cataract surgery performed by first and second year trainees

Ferris JD, Donachie PH, Johnston RL, et al.

British Journal of Ophthalmology, Epub ahead of print: 29 May, 2019, doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-313817

Virtual-reality performance correlates significantly with real-life cataract surgical performance

Jacobsen, Mads F. et al.

Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2019.04.007

EYESI surgical simulator: validity evidence of the vitreoretinal modules

Cécile Cissé, Karine Angioi, Amandine Luc, Jean-Paul Berrod, Jean-Baptiste Conart.

Acta Ophthalmol. 2019: 97: e277–e282. doi: 10.1111/aos.13910.



A guide to eyes: ophthalmic simulators

Radia M, Arunakirinathan M, Sibley D

The Bulletin, Royal College of Surgeons, Volume 100 Issue 4, June 2018, pp. 169-171, doi.org/10.1308/rcsbull.2018.E169

Impact of virtual reality simulation on learning barriers of phacoemulsification perceived by residents.

Ng DS, Sun ZH, Young AL, Ko STC, Lok JKH, Lai TYY, Sikder S, Tham CC

Clinical Ophthalmology, Published 11 May 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 885-893. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S140411.



Effect of music on surgical skill during simulated intraocular surgery.

Kyrillos R, Caissie M.

Can J Ophthalmol. 2017 Dec; 52(6):538-542. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjo.2017.04.008. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Surgical Simulation Training Reduces Intraoperative Cataract Surgery Complications Among Residents.

Staropoli PC, Gregori NZ, Junk AK, Galor A, Goldhardt R, Goldhagen BE, Shi W, Feuer W.

Simul Healthc. 2017 Oct 11. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000255. [Epub ahead of print]


Chou J, Kosowsky T, Payal AR, Gonzalez Gonzalez LA, Daly MK.

Retina. 2017 Oct;37(10):1967-1976. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000001438.

Continuous Curvilinear Capsulorhexis Training and Non-Rhexis Related Vitreous Loss: The Specificity of Virtual Reality Simulator Surgical Training (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

McCannel CA.

Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2017 Aug 22;115:T2. eCollection 2017 Aug.

Virtual reality-based proficiency test in direct ophthalmoscopy.

Borgersen NJ, Skou Thomsen AS, Konge L, Sørensen TL, Subhi Y.

Acta Ophthalmol. 2018 Mar;96(2):e259-e261. doi: 10.1111/aos.13546.

Operating Room Performance Improves after Proficiency-Based Virtual Reality Cataract Surgery Training.

Thomsen, Bach-Holm, Kjærbo, Højgaard-Olsen, Subhi, Saleh, Park, la Cour, Konge.

Ophthalmology. 2017 Apr; 124(4):524-531. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.11.015.

Teaching binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy to novice residents using an augmented reality simulator

Amandeep S. Rai, Amrit S. Rai, Emmanouil Mavrikakis, Wai Ching Lam

Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, published online: April 21, 2017

La simulación en la enseñanza de la oftalmología

Juan Carlos Serna-Ojeda, Enrique O. Graue-Hernández, Pablo José Guzmán-Salas y José Luis Rodríguez-Loaiza

Gaceta Médica de México, 2017;153:111-5

Operating Room Performance Improves after Proficiency-Based Virtual Reality Cataract Surgery Training

Ann Sofia Skou Thomsen, Daniella Bach-Holm, Hadi Kjærbo, Klavs Højgaard-Olsen, Yousif Subhi, George M. Saleh, Yoon Soo Park, Morten la Cour, Lars Konge



High correlation between performance on a virtual-reality simulator and real-life cataract surgery

Ann Sofia Skou Thomsen, Phillip Smith, Yousif Subhi, Morten la Cour, Lilian Tang, George M. Saleh, and Lars Konge

Acta Ophthalmologica 09/2016; doi: 10.1111/aos.13275

Virtual vitreoretinal surgery: validation of a training programme.

Anna Stage Vergmann, Anders Højslet Vestergaard, Jakob Grauslund.

Acta ophthalmologica 08/2016; DOI:10.1111/aos.13209

Efficacy of Eyesi® surgical simulator training in improving high-tension capsules capsulorhexis performance

Tiago Bisol, Renata Attanasio de Rezende Bisol, Flavio Rezende

Revista Brasileira de Oftalmologia, 2016; 75 (5): 376-9

Clinical Efficacy of Simulated Vitreoretinal Surgery to Prepare Surgeons for the Upcoming Intervention in the Operating Room.

Deuchler S, Wagner C, Singh P, Müller M, Al-Dwairi R, Benjilali R, Schill M, Ackermann H, Bon D, Kohnen T, Schoene B, Koss M, Koch F.

PLoS One 2016 10;11(3):e0150690. Epub 2016 Mar 10.



Learning styles and the prospective ophthalmologist.

Modi, Williams, Swampillai, Waqar, Park, Kersey, Sleep.

Med Teach. 2015 Apr; 37(4):344-7. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.948827.

Cost analysis of objective resident cataract surgery assessments

Kiran Nandigam, MBA, Jonathan Soh, BS, William G. Gensheimer, MD, Ahmed Ghazi, MD, MSc, Yousuf M. Khalifa, MD


Simulation-based certification for cataract surgery.

Thomsen A, Kiilgaard J, Kjærbo H, la CourM, Konge L.

Acta Ophthalmol. 2015 Feb 26. doi: 10.1111/aos.12691.



Development of a virtual reality training curriculum for phacoemulsification surgery.

Spiteri, Aggarwal, Kersey, Sira, Benjamin, Darzi, Bloom.

Eye (Lond). 2014 Jan; 28(1):78-84. doi: 10.1038/eye.2013.211.

Establishment of a validated training programme on the Eyesi cataract simulator. A prospective randomized study.

Bergqvist J, Person A, Vestergaard A, Grauslund J.

Acta Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar 11. doi: 10.1111/aos.12383.

Critical Evaluation of the Usability of Augmented Reality Ophthalmoscopy for the Training of Inexperienced Examiners.

Leitritz, Martin A. MD; Ziemssen, Focke MD; Suesskind, Daniela MD; Partsch, Michael MD; Voykov, Bogomil MD; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U. MD; Szurman, Gesine B. MD.

Retina, 2014 Apr;34(4):785-91. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e3182a2e75d.



Cost analysis of virtual-reality phacoemulsification simulation in ophthalmology training programs

Eugene A. Lowry, BA, Travis C. Porco, PhD, MPH, Ayman Naseri, MCATARACT REFRACT SURG - VOL 39, OCTOBER 2013

The international forum of ophthalmic simulation: developing a virtual reality training curriculum for ophthalmology.

Saleh GM, Lamparter J, Sullivan PM, O'Sullivan F, Hussain B, Athanasiadis I, Litwin AS, Gillan SN.

Br J Ophthalmol. 2013 Jun;97(6):789-92. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2012-302764. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Cataract Surgery and Virtual Reality: an ST1’s Experience.

JWL Gong, SN Gillan, CJ MacEwen.

EyeNews Aug/Sept edition.

Ophthalmic Surgery Simulator Training Improves Resident Performance of Capsulorhexis in the Operating Room.

Colin A. McCannel, David C. Reed, Darin R. Goldman.

Ophthalmology, 2013 Jun 21, doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.05.003.

Intensive cataract training: a novel approach.

Baxter JM, Lee R, Sharp JA, Foss AJ et al.

Eye, 2013 Apr 19. doi: 10.1038/eye.2013.54.



Can virtual reality simulation help to determine the importance of stereopsis in intraocular surgery?

Waqar, Williams, Park, Modi, Kersey, Sleep.

Br J Ophthalmol. 2012 May; 96(5):742-6. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-301150.

Medical Simulation in Ophthalmology.

Stewart N. Gillan, MBChB, MRCOphth and George M. Saleh, MBBS, FRCS(Ed), FRCOphth.

Cataract & Refractive Surgery Today EUROPE, July/August 2012.

Virtual reality cataract surgery training: learning curves and concurrent validity.

Selvander, Åsman.

Acta Ophthalmol. 2012 Aug; 90(5):412-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.02028.x.

Ausbildung von Kataraktchirurgen mit Hilfe von Simulatoren.

Dr. med. Florian T. A. Kretz, Dr. med. Maria J. Sanchez, Prof. Dr. med. Gerd U. Auffarth.

Der Augenspiegel, 07-08 2012.

Cataract surgeons outperform medical students in Eyesi virtual reality cataract surgery: evidence for construct validity.

Madeleine Selvander, MD, Peter Åsman, MD.

Acta Ophthalmologica 2012 Jun 7. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02440.x.

A comparison of hand- and foot-activated surgical tools in simulated ophthalmic surgery.

Podbielski DW, Noble J, Gill HS, Sit M, Lam WC.

Can J Ophthalmol. 2012 Oct;47(5):414-7.




Stereoacuity and intraocular surgical skill: effect of stereoacuity level on virtual reality intraocular surgical performance.

Selvander, Åsman.

J Cataract Refract Surg. 2011 Dec; 37(12):2188-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2011.05.048.

Influence of surgery simulator training on ophthalmology resident phacoemulsification performance.

David A. Belyea, MD, MBA, Sarah E. Brown, MD, Lamise Z. Rajjoub, MD.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2011; 37:1756–1761 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS.

Beta-Blockade Affects Simulator Scores.

Renelle Pointdujour, MD, Habeeb Ahmad, MD, Margaret Liu, MD, Edward Smith, MD, Douglas Lazzaro, MD.

Ophthalmology Volume 118, Number 9, September 2011.

Assessment of fatigue in intraocular surgery: analysis using a virtual reality simulator.

Waqar S, Park J, Kersey TL, Modi N, Ong C, Sleep TJ.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011 Jan;249(1):77-81. Epub 2010 Oct 2.

Virtual reality ophthalmic surgical simulation as a feasible training and assessment tool: results of a multicentre study.

Le TD, Adatia FA, Lam WC.

Can J Ophthalmol. 2011 Feb;46(1):56-60. doi: 10.3129/i10-051.

Effect of sleep deprivation on the performance of simulated anterior segment surgical skill.

Erie EA, Mahr MA, Hodge DO, Erie JC.
Can J Ophthalmol. 2011 Feb;46(1):61-5. doi: 10.3129/i10-112.

VR (virtual reality) to OR: Impact of residency training with the Eyesi simulator system on cataract surgery outcomes.

Elizabeth Du, Ana G. Alzaga Fernandez, Sarah Khodadadeh, Daniel Steen, Russell Pokroy. Ophthalmology, Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI; Ophthalmology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI.

Posterpresentation at ARVO2011.

Impact of simulator training on resident cataract surgery.

Pokroy R, Du E, Alzaga A, Khodadadeh S, Steen D, Bachynski B, Edwards P.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013 Mar;251(3):777-81.

Presented in part at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, May 2011.

Performance of patients with deficient stereoacuity on the EYESi microsurgical simulator.

Sachdeva R, Traboulsi EI.

Am J Ophthalmol. 2011 Mar;151(3):427-33.e1.

doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2010.09.011.



Virtual reality cataract surgery training: learning curves and concurrent validity.

Selvander M, Åsman P.

Acta Ophthalmologica 2010 Nov 5. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.02028.x.

Construct validity of a surgical simulator as a valid model for capsulorhexis training.

Brian Privett, MD, Emily Greenlee, MD, Gina Rogers, MD, Thomas A. Oetting, MS, MD.

Cataract & Refractive Surg 2010; 36:1835-1838 Q 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS.

Phacoemulsification skills training and assessment.

Anthony Spiteri, Rajesh Aggarwal, Tom Kersey, Larry Benjamin, Ara Darzi, Philip Bloom.

Br J Ophthalmol 2010;94:536-541 doi:10.1136/bjo.2009.159715.

Performance of patients with deficient stereoacuity or monofixation syndrome using the EYESi Microsurgical Simulator: A pilot study.

Reecha Sachdeva, Elias I. Traboulsi.

J AAPOS. Volume 14, Issue 1, Page e26 (February 2010).

PII: S1091-8531(09)00547-3.




Virtual reality training improves wet-lab performance of capsulorhexis: results of a randomized, controlled study

Elisabeth M. Feudner, Corinna Engel, Irmingard M. Neuhann, Katrin Petermeier,

Karl-Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Peter Szurman

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol (2009) 247:955–963

DOI 10.1007/s00417-008-1029-7

An assessment of the ability of surgical simulation to predict actual surgical proficiency in ophthalmology

H.S. Gill, M. Sit, J. Noble, E. Liu, I. Ahmed, W.C. Lam

Open Medicine, Vol 3, No 3 (2009)

Virtuelle Realität in der Ophthalmologie / Virtual Reality in Ophthalmology

F. Koch, M. J. Koss, P. Singh, H. Naser

Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 2009; 226(8): 672-676

DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1109383

Surgical competency in residents

Oetting TA.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2009 Jan; 20(1):56-60.

PMID: 19093331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Eyesi: Ophthalmic Surgical Simulator

Dr. Meena Chakrabarti, Dr. Sonia Rani John, Dr. Arup Chakrabarti

Kerala Journal of Ophthalmology

Vol. XXI Issue 3 September 2009: 280-285

Virtual reality simulation in acquiring and differentiating basic ophthalmic microsurgical skills

Solverson DJ, Mazzoli RA, Raymond WR, Nelson ML, Hansen EA, Torres MF,

Bhandari A, Hartranft CD.

Simul Healthc. 2009 Summer;4(2):98-103.

PMID: 19444047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Construct validity of anterior segment anti-tremor and forceps surgical simulator training modules: Attending versus resident surgeon performance

Michael A. Mahr, MD, David O. Hodge, MS

J Cataract Refract Surg 2008; 34:980–985 Q 2008 ASCRS and ESCRS

Teaching the Capsulorrhexis Technique: When using the program outlined in this article, most residents can develop the skills necessary to perform capsulorrhexes with a low incidence of complications

Thomas A. Oetting, MS, MD

Cataract & Refractive Surgery Today I Nov/Dec 2008: 36-38

Phakosimulation – wo stehen wir heute? Erfahrungen mit dem Eyesi Simulator (German)

M. C. Knorz, Mannheim

OPHTHALMO-CHIRURGIE 20: 208-210 (2008)

Simuleret øjenkirurgi en god hjælp i kirurgisk oplæring (Danish)

Anders Kruse Øjenafdelingen Glostrup Hospital / Ålborg Sygehus

oftalmolog 24 December 2008

Ophthalmic surgical training: a curriculum to enhance surgical simulation

Grodin MH, Johnson TM, Acree JL, Glaser BM.

Retina. 2008 Nov-Dec;28(10):1509-14.

PMID: 18695630 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Surgical Simulator Helps Train Young Surgeons: New technology provides another avenue to learn and refine surgical skills

Fareed Ali, MD, FRCS(C)

Retinal Physician Issue: May 2006



Vitreoretinal Surgical Training Using a Simulator

Klaus Lucke, MD ChB (Bremen, Germany)

Scientific Paper: 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Retina

Specialists (ASRS) in Montreal, Canada 2005

Vitreoretinal Surgical Simulator: Developments to Enhance Training and Accreditation of Vitreretinal Surgeons

Michael H. Grodin, DO (Towson, MD), T. Mark Johnson, MD, FRCS(C) (Chevy

Chase, MD), Bert M. Glaser, MD (Towson, MD)

Scientific Paper: 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Retina

Specialists (ASRS) in Montreal, Canada 2005



Virtual Vitreoretinal Surgical Simulator as a Training Tool

Juliana V. Rossi, MD, Dinesh Verma, MD, FRCS, FRCOPHTH,Gildo Y. Fujii, MD, Rohit R. Lakhanpal, MD, Sue Lynn WU, Mark S. Humayun, MD, PHD, Eugene De

Juan Jr., MD

RETINA 24:231–236, 2004



Computer-assisted training system for pars plana vitrectomy

Jost B. Jonas(1), Stefan Rabethge(1) and Hans-Joachim Bender(2)

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 2003: 81: 600– 604

doi: 10.1046/j.1600-0420.2003.00078.x