Case-based Learning

Abstract Cases

The training curriculum of Eyesi Direct includes four tiers of increasing difficulty. In the first two tiers basic handling of the ophthalmoscope is practiced by means of abstract objects on the retina which have to be found, remembered, and marked on a fundus scheme.

Anatomical and Pathological Cases

In the third tier of the curriculum, anatomical features and pathological findings are introduced and explained (instructional mode). The simulator tells the trainees which findings or features they are expected to find. When a trainee detects one of those findings, it is highlighted and its name is displayed. This way trainees learn how to recognize pathological findings.


In the fourth tier, the knowledge acquired in the instructional cases of the third tier has to be applied (quiz mode). Trainees have to examine virtual patients who present with varying healthy and pathological retinas. No guidance or hints are provided. After the exam trainees have to specify their observations in a designated input mask. The result is an objective assessment of the level of skill trainees have reached.